The term “Phase I and Phase II Optimizers” refers to those substances with the ability to simultaneously influence and “optimize” the activity of certain Phase 1 and Phase 2 enzyme systems. Optimizers generally up regulate or induce Phase 2 enzymes; however, optimizing Phase 1 enzymes may mean down-regulating them when they are too high without totally inhibiting them. Phase I and Phase II Optimizers may further balance the phases of detoxification by acting as antioxidants and binding dangerous free radicals formed between the two phases.
Examples of Phase I and Phase II Optimizers in Pro PhaseTM are ellagic acid from pomegranate, catechins from green tea extract and glucosinolates from watercress powder. Ellagic acid can bind directly to DNA to protect it and bind directly t some toxic substances to promote their excretion. In addition, ellagic acid induces Phase 2 enzymes at the gene level and makes sure these are not over-induced by its modulation of CYP1A activities. The catechins in green tea, besides being strong antioxidants, also can bind directly to toxic substances. They have the ability to modulate Phase 1 enzymes, moderately up-regulating them when carcinogens are not present and limiting the enzyme production when toxic substances are encountered. Glucosinolates are precursors to isothiocyanates. In particular, watercress is metabolized by gut flora into phenylethyl isothiocyanates (PEITC) which like the other ingredients above, can selectively inhibit Phase 1 enzymes and induce the activities of phase 2 enzymes.
As the liver is one of the main organs for detoxification, silymarin (milk thistle seed extract) and artichoke leaf extract and alpha lipoic acid have been added to the formula because they are hepatoprotectanct. They also increase glutathione and provide potent antioxidant protection.
The remaining ingredients in this formula are present to support the various Phase 2 detoxification pathways. Vitamins B6, B12 and folate, along with MSM support methylation. Calcium D-Glucarate has been added to support glucuronidation. The sulfate donors, sodium sulfate and NAC are especially important in cases of heavy metal burden because they support glutathione production and the sulfation pathway.
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